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Many wastewater and textile processors are gradually substituting chlorine with ozone. Ozone is a powerful oxidizing mean and safer in use in comparison with other oxidizing means.

Wastewater & Dye Color Removal

Water is shown colored when visible radiation is absorbed from dissolved materials, or when light is reflected on suspended solids. These two sources of color are the base for the distinction between the pseudo and true color. The pseudo color is due to absorption as well as light reflection. The true color depends exclusively from the kind and quantity of the dissolved substances. Particles with a size of 400-800 nm, that means within the wavelength of visible light, are responsible for light reflection. It is possible with filtering (membrane 0.45 µm) the phenomenon of reflection to be eliminated. It must also be noted that the difference between the pseudo and true color is related to water's turbidity.

The units Pt-Co (USA), or mg Pt-Co / l (Europe) are defined as color measurement units. These units are considered equivalent. The acceptable limits of color values for the disposal of treated wastewater ranges from 50-100 units Pt-Co, depending on the nature of the receiver (river, sea, lake etc).

True color is created by the presence of compounds that absorb visible light in wavelengths of 400-800 nm, or from compounds that fluoresce in the 200-400 nm spectrum. These are compounds of poly-aromatic structure, substituted aromatic structure, polyenia, concentrated hetero-circular molecules or perplex ions. It should be noted that p bonds absorb into the UV (<200nm ) spectrum and the existence of conjugate bonds (polyenia) is necessary for the absorption in visible light spectrum. Most compounds responsible for color creation contain one or more aromatic rings and start absorbing color at 250 nm.

The synthetic color carriers come mainly from industrial plants as dye-houses, clothing industries with washing-machines, food and beverage industries, slaughterhouses etc.

Wastewater is processed with ozone after its exit from the chemical or/and biological treatment plant and the usual dosage varies from 50-150 mg/l, according to the wastewater origin, its temperature, and the degree of its previous process.

Removal of Heavy Metals

Ozone oxidizes the transition metals to their higher oxidation state in which they usually form less soluble oxides, easy to separate by filtration. e.g. iron is usually in the ferrous state when it is dissolved in water. With ozone it yields ferric iron, further oxidized in water to Ferric Hydroxide that is very insoluble and precipitates out for filtration. Other metals: Arsenic (in presence of Iron), Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Nickel, Zinc - can be treated in a similar way. At Ozone levels above 4 ppm however, Manganese will form soluble permanganate, showing up as a pink color.

Color Removal

Surface waters are generally colored by natural organic materials such as humic, fulvic and tannic acids. These compounds result from the decay of vegetative materials and are generally related to condensation products of phenol like compounds; they have conjugated carbon/carbon double bonds. When the series of double bonds extend upwards of twenty, the color absorption shows up in the visible spectrum. Ozone is attracted to break organic double bonds. As more of these double bonds are eliminated, the color disappears.

Color Removal Quality

bullet2The quality of the ozone treatment effluent in terms of color removal, depends on

bullet2The color values of the feed.

bullet2The ozone dosage.

bullet2The wastewater type (typically color values do not decrease below 200 pt-co units even if an especially high ozone dosage is applied).

bullet2The wastewater temperature (better results with effluent from the existing treatment whose temperature is much lower than the temperature of wastewater from the equalization tank).

bullet2The values of the other wastewater characteristics that ozone also affects (better results if bod, cod and ss have already been decreased in a previous treatment level).

The best results concerning color removal are achieved if the wastewater has been previously treated in order to lower the values of the other characteristics so that the ozone oxidizing effect is "consumed" only or at least at a maximum proportion in color removal. Additionally the temperature must be below 30-deg C in order to achieve the best physical conditions for its solubility.

The above remark certainly concerns the practical usage of ozone technology in wastewater treatment, as it indicates that the increase of the ozone dosage could give good results even in unprocessed wastewater as long as it has been efficiently cooled.

Wastewater color removal requires an ozone dosage which in most cases fluctuates from 50 to 100 mg/l, for color reduction of 85-92%. This dosage succeeds simultaneously a COD reduction about 60% to 80% while small increases of BOD in the area of 3-7% have been noticed.

The ozone treatment installation represent a significant construction and purchase cost. On the other hand a conventional treatment scheme using chemical coagulants for color removal, has high operational costs (cost of the coagulants themselves and cost for the produced sludge management requirements). In general and for the same effluent quality, the investment of an ozone installation can be paid off in 3-5 years, depending on the size and other specific details of each case.

Improved Coagulation & Turbidity Removal

Oxidation of dissolved organic materials by Ozone results in polar and charged molecules that can react with Polyvalent Aluminum or Calcium to form precipitates. Treatment of a surface water with up to 0.5 ppm of Ozone results in a decrease in turbidity, improved settleability and a reduction in the number of particles. Referred to as pre-ozonation this treatment destabilizes the colloid with a resultant reduction of the amount of coagulant needed to produce a clear filtrate.

Ozone is effective against a large variety of water treatment problems. In general, the more problems in the water to be treated with ozone, the less an ozonation system costs when compared to other more conventional treatment methods. When one is comparing the cost of an ozonation system to other treatment systems there are some key factors to consider; here are a few

Economies

bullet2There is no need to purchase, ship or store chemical oxidants or disinfectants.

bullet2There is no labor for handling.

bullet2Many health and safety concerns are reduced or eliminated.

bullet2Because ozone reacts so much more quickly there is opportunity for substantial savings in space requirements for the treatment system.

bullet2Because ozone treatment design is flexible, one of the variety of installations can be adapted to any fit any design circumstance.

bullet2It is likely that much of your existing treatment facilities are adaptable to an ozone based treatment system.

bullet2The pay back of your investment can be surprisingly short.

Facts & Features

bullet2Worldwide installations.

bullet2Extremely User and Service Friendly.

bullet2Water Resistant Cabinet.

bullet2Water Cooled Circuit for Both Electrodes.

bullet2Compact, Modular Design.

bullet2Computer Integration to Monitor Performance Data.

bullet2Integrated Air Preparation unit.

bullet2Oxygen, compressed or Ambient Air as Feed Gas.

bullet2Ozone on Demand Through Microprocessor Control.

bullet2Ozone Capacities from 1g/day to 200kg/day.

3,000 times more germicidal than chlorine.

160 times more bactericidal than sulphur dioxide.

37 times more bactericidal than formaldehyde.

1.7 times more bactericidal than hydrocyanic acid.

Some Specific Compounds Oxidized By Ozone

bullet2Ammonia

bullet2Phenolics

bullet2Detergents

bullet2Fulvic Acid

bullet2Tannic Acids (plant-originated acids)

bullet2Sulfides

bullet2Cyanides

bullet2Spores of Molds (very effective)

bullet2Amoebae (very effective)

bullet22.4D

bullet2Arsenic

bullet2Chlorine and its derivatives

bullet2DDT

bullet2Dioxins

bullet2Hospital WasteWater Treatment

Ozone can be utilized to treat wastewater generated from hospitals and the medical community. Due to the superior oxidation properties of ozone over conventional treatments and our CD OZONE's high ozone concentration at over 6% by weight, we can (and have) gone after these complex waste streams with very good results. If you have a specific problem you are trying to resolve, please contact us with more details and see how ozone may be employed for your case.

Application of Waste Water

bullet2Oxidation of organic waste.

bullet2Cyanide destruction.

bullet2Ground water petrochemical oxidation.

bullet2Heavy metal precipitation.

bullet2Pulp & paper effluents.

bullet2Textile Mill effluents.

bullet2Textile Dye, Starch, FOG (Fate, Oil, Grease) elimination.

bullet2Pesticide, herbicide and insecticide elimination.

bullet2BOD reduction of domestic waste.

bullet2Secondary treatments for municipal waste water.

bullet2Mining heavy metal precipitation.